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Birla Gold and Precious Metals Limited

 
 

Diamonds Guide

DIAMOND SHAPES
ROUND
CUSHION
PRINCESS
MARQUISE
PEAR
HEART
OVAL
EMERALD
RADIANT
OTHERS

COLOR
D E F G H I J K L M N O - P
 
CLARITY
FL IF VVS1 VVS2 VS1 VS2 SI1 SI2 SI3 I1 I2 I3

COLOR CLARITY CUT / POLISH / SYMMETRY
Grade Description Grade Description Grade Description
D , E , F Colorless FL Flow Less ID Ideal
G , H , I , J Near Colorless IF Internally Flow Less EX Excellent
K , L , M Faint Yellow VVS1 , VVS2 Very Very Slightly Included VG Very Good
N to R Very Light Yellow VS1 ,  VS2 Very Slightly Included GD Good
S to Z Light Yellow SI1 , SI2 , SI3 Slightly Included FR Fair
I1 , I2 , I3 Included PR Poor

Diamonds are graded and categorized on different characteristics by diamond industry. To know about diamonds, 4C's are like basics of diamonds.
The 4C's consist of:
a. CUT
b. CLARITY
c. COLOR
d. CARAT

A. CUT

Diamond cut is the most important criteria in all 4C’s. Brilliance of the diamond depends on how good the cut is. It has the greatest overall influence on a diamond's beauty. It determines what we generally think of as sparkle.
 
When a diamond is cut with the proper proportions, light is reflected back to the top of the diamond. If it is cut too shallow, light leaks out of the bottom; too deep and it escapes out of the side.
 
Furthermore cut is defined and categorized in different grades to help the customers to determine the cut of a particular diamond.

They are:
i. Excellent
ii. Very Good
iii. Good
iv. Fair / Poor
 
i. Excellent: Excellent cut diamonds reflects the maximum amount of brilliance and fire. It reflects nearly all light that enters the diamond, creating exceptional sparkle and life.

ii. Very Good:  Very good cut diamonds properly reflects most of the light that enters the diamond, producing superior fire and brilliance. Under normal lighting conditions, appears very similar to excellent cut, but for a lower price.

iii. Good: Reflects a majority of the light that enters the diamond, for an above average appearance. An excellent value compared to higher cut grades.

iv, Fair/poor: Allows much of the light entering the diamond to escape from the sides or bottom, reducing perceived fire and brilliance.The diamond may appear noticeably dull and lifeless, even to an untrained eye

B. CLARITY

Clarity is a measure of the number and size of the tiny imperfections that occur in almost all diamonds. Many of these imperfections are microscopic, and do not affect a diamond's beauty in any discernible way. Clarity simply refers to the tiny, natural imperfections that occur in all but the finest diamonds. Gemologists refer to these imperfections by a variety of technical names, Small imperfections of the diamond (called inclusions) or on its surface (called blemishes) and among others.

If you think about the incredible amount of pressure it takes to create a diamond and the fact that natural diamonds are not made in a sterile laboratory, it is not surprising that most diamonds have flaws.

The position of an inclusion affects how easily it can be seen. Diamond cutters make every effort to cut a stone so that inclusions are not visible through the table of the finished diamond. The preferred position for inclusions is under the bezel facets or near the girdle because they are harder to see there.

Clarity is determined by following grades

CLARITY
Grade Description
FL Flow Less
IF Internally Flow Less
VVS1 , VVS2 Very Very Slightly Included
VS1 ,  VS2 Very Slightly Included
SI1 , SI2 , SI3 Slightly Included
I1 , I2 , I3 Included

 
i. Flawless (FL)  - Flawless diamonds have no inclusions or flaws when viewed under 10x magnification by a trained grader. A diamond can have naturally confined to the width of the girdle, extra facets on the pavilion that are not visible face-up, laser inscriptions confined to the girdle and internal graining that is not white, colored or reflective.

ii. Flawless (IF) - Flawless IF diamond has no inclusions, only blemishes when viewed under 10x magnification.

iii. Very, Very Slightly Included (VVS1 and VVS2) – VVS1 diamonds contain minute inclusions that are difficult for a skilled grader to see under 10x magnification. Inclusions of VVS1 diamond is extremely difficult to understand, respond to, or cannot be seen through the pavilion. A VVS2 inclusion in diamonds is very difficult to detect. VVS2 diamonds usually have a pinpoint or two, but properties such as tiny chips or bearded girdle might be present in VVS2 according to their visibility.

iv. Very Slightly Included (VS1 and VS2) - VS clarity diamonds contain minor inclusions ranging from difficult (VS1) to somewhat easy (VS2) and can be seen under 10x magnification. Typical inclusions of VS diamonds are small crystals, feathers and specific groups of pinpoints.

v. Slightly Included (SI1 and SI2) - SI clarity diamonds contain visible inclusions that are easy (SI1) or very easy (SI2) to see under 10x magnification. Typical inclusions such as crystals, feathers and clusters are identified in the center of the diamond.

vi. Included (I1, I2, and I3) - Diamond Clarity Range "I" contain inclusions that are visible under 10x magnification. These inclusions can often times be seen face-up without magnification, sometimes affect the stone's durability and can be so numerous or large that they affect transparency and brilliance.
 
The clarity is typically assigned by a first impression or at first glance. The grader notes whether the inclusions are easy, difficult or very difficult to see when they first look at the stone. The clarity grade of most diamond s is determined in less than 2 minutes. The exception to this is in Internally Flawless and Flawless diamonds, which take considerable examination to assign such a high and valuable grade.

C. COLOR

 
When most industry experts discuss the color of diamonds, they are generally pointing to lack of transparency or color of the diamond. Diamonds are made of 100% pure carbons without impurities thus are completely colorless diamonds. However, almost all diamonds contain some extent of color impurity caused by traces of nitrogen, boron, hydrogen or other elements. Most diamonds suffer only traces of nitrogen, which produces a pale yellow or brownish color.
 
Method of diamond color grading


COLOR
Grade Description
D , E , F Colorless
G , H , I , J Near Colorless
K , L , M Faint Yellow
N to R Very Light Yellow
S to Z Light Yellow

 
To grade color of the diamonds, they should be free, because if the diamond is in the metal, the metal will affect the color we perceive. For example, a slightly yellow diamond could might glitter more yellow if set in yellow gold, look less yellow set in white gold or platinum.

Diamonds are placed table-down, pavilion up, and magnified under 10X loupe.
Lettering system from D to Z is used to determine the amount of color in each diamond with D awarded only to rarely completely colorless diamonds. Grades of Diamond Colorless diamonds and diamonds that are yellow or yellowish brown are grouped into the following categories.

D. CARAT

 
Carat is specifically a measure of a diamond's weight A one-carat diamond is comprised of 100 points called cents. Hence, 50 cents is equal to 1/2-carat, and so on. It's easier to understand this C of all "4Cs". Weight of a diamond is directly related to the size, and although incorrect, these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. A unit of weight for diamonds and other gemstones is carat.

POLISH

The quality of diamond's surface condition is referred by polish grade of a diamond. It indicates the level of smoothness created while cutting and polishing process of the diamond. As a result the polishing and cutting process plays a vital role in determining the polish grade including the cut grade.

Polish grade is measured on a scale of Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor. It signifies the smoothness of different diamond facets. More the blurred and dull appearance, lower the grades. So it's always recommended to buy a diamond of good to excellent grade.

 
CUT / POLISH / SYMMETRY
Grade Description
ID Ideal
EX Excellent
VG Very Good
GD Good
FR Fair
PR Poor